Most of the time, skilled employees are individuals seeking further development of their psychological competence at the workplace. Unfortunately, they often face uncertainty in fully satisfying this psychological need McMullen and Shepherd, More importantly, highly skilled employees tend not to rely on routines but to seek ways to adapt their behaviors as they move through organizational ladders McGrath and MacMillan, By facilitating and encouraging personal goal setting that does not conflict with work-life balance, managers may provide their employees the opportunities to further develop the skills and capabilities that can help them achieve both their personal objectives e.
Several field and experimental studies have investigated the relationship between psychological competence, psychological well-being, and work-life balance.
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Consistently, psychological competence has been associated with greater psychological well-being and work-life balance. Similarly, work-life balance was found to mediate the relationship between psychological competence and psychological well-being. Valorizing psychological competence may bear significant benefits for employees and employers alike.
For example, by satisfying the need for psychological competence, employees are more likely to increase their motivation for continuous capacity building. Research further shows higher levels of psychology competence correlate positively to psychological well-being in addition to other psychological needs, such as hedonic happiness Cordeiro et al. Based on the findings mentioned above, we hypothesize the following:. H2c: Work balance has a mediating effect on the relationship between psychological competence and psychological well-being. Psychological relatedness refers to the social nature of human beings and their connectedness with others.
Researchers agree psychological relatedness is significant within a supportive workplace setting in which closeness with others and social actions are valued. Being new at the workplace may produce the feeling of social isolation and loneliness Gumpert and Boyd, Similarly, an unsupportive work environment can create a relationship gap between and within a hierarchy, resulting in feelings of remoteness, loneliness and social isolation Hannafey, Because of the requirements for employees to commit to customers and co-workers, the feeling of remoteness may also be created even in a supportive workplace environment Wood and Rowe, ; Shir et al.
Consequently, a deficit of belonging may occur because of the negative emotions e. In contrast to the sentiment of feeling alienated or marginalized, autonomy or supportive autonomy at the workplace is conducive to giving employees the feeling of being connected with their co-workers Baumeister and Leary, Consequently, employees may enjoy the freedom to organize their own approach to achieving organizational objectives and the freedom to interact with individuals and connect to professional networks relevant to their personalities.
When employees have the autonomy to establish relationships and interact freely with individuals of their choice, employees are more likely to devote time to nurture the relationships and professional networks in which they have been encouraged to engage. Managers may protect those working under their supervision from developing feelings of being socially isolated Francis and Sandberg, Otherwise, employees may experience feelings of social isolation when they are obliged to abide by the decisions of others, are pressured to collaborate with individuals chosen by upper management, and are forced to follow organizational rules and routines Simon, Since a supportive autonomy at the workplace confers better opportunities for individuals to consolidate relationships at work, they are more likely to experience greater feelings of connectivity with their peers, which may result in a satisfactory level of well-being.
Positive feelings of psychological relatedness are strongly correlated with other psychological needs, such as psychological relatedness as well as subcategories of psychological needs, such as well-being, hedonic happiness, subjective vitality, and life satisfaction Sheldon et al. Consequently, the following are hypothesized:. H4: Work-life balance mediates the relationship between psychological relatedness and psychological well-being. To meet the objective of this study, we developed a quantitative questionnaire survey, and a written informed consent was obtained from participants before they completed the questionnaire.
The questionnaire was divided into six sections. The first section collected basic socio-demographic information. Items were measured using a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected from two sources: online and onsite. From the online source, responses were collected. For the onsite source, valid responses were collected using the traditional paper-pencil survey technique at hospitality sites in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A summary of the basic respondent information demonstrates that, among the respondents who completed the questionnaire survey, Furthermore, The academic credentials of the respondents accounted To meet this objective, a structural equation model was developed to survey how psychological autonomy, psychological competence, and psychological relatedness affect psychological well-being and work-life balance.
The mediating effect of work-life balance in these relationships is studied. Items were analyzed for convergent validity, reliability, and discriminant validity. Model fitness was tested using structural equation modeling SEM.
Work–life balance - Wikipedia
Research design and sample. We tested the scale of the items on the questionnaire for convergent validity, reliability, and discriminant validity. The assessment of convergent validity of latent variables generally requires a loading threshold equal to or above 0.
The convergent validity of the measurement of our model was confirmed, with each item yielding a value higher than the minimum threshold generally required.
Since these measurements meet the recommended threshold values, we concluded our model was reliable. We also conducted a discriminant validity test using a correlation matrix, as shown in Table 1 , to ensure the square root of the AVE for each construct was greater than the inter-construct correlations. The results also yield an adjusted goodness of fit index AGFI of 0. For hypothesis H 4 , work-life balance has a positive effect on psychological well-being, with a Standardized Beta Coefficient of 0.
As shown in Table 2 , four 4 of seven 7 hypotheses described in our model are confirmed through statistically significant path coefficients. In the next step, we assess the mediating effect of work-life balance in the relationship between each independent variable and the dependent variable.
AN EVALUATION OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
Psychological autonomy significantly and positively affects work balance with a regression weight equal to 0. Work-life balance significantly affects psychological well-being with a regression weight of 1. However, the results indicate a decrease of the causal effect of psychological autonomy on psychological well-being. Such a decrease in the regression weight indicates a non-mediating effect of work-life balance Hayes et al. The mediating effect of work-life balance on the relationship between psychological competence and psychological well-being was tested.
Different from what was hypothesized, the results show that work-life balance is not a valid mediating factor in this relationship. Similarly, we tested the mediating effect of work-life balance in the relationship between psychological competence and psychological well-being, then between psychological relatedness and psychological well-being. The results confirm the mediating of work-life balance in the relationship both between psychological competence and psychological well-being, and between psychological relatedness and psychological well-being.
The relevance of psychological autonomy was found to be positively associated with psychological well-being and work-life balance.
Similarly, psychological competence is positively associated with psychological well-being. These results are all supported by the literature Sheldon et al. Differently from what was hypothesized based on other findings in the literature, psychological competence is negatively associated with work-life balance. Moreover, we found that psychological relatedness is negatively associated with both psychological well-being and work-life balance, whereas work-life balance is positively associated with psychological well-being. Thus, a proper interpretation of these results can be performed only by considering the social and legal contexts, the demography of the workforce, and the nature of the industry in which these variables were studied.
The hospitality industry is a highly workforce-intensive sector requiring the recruitment of both unskilled and skilled labor for service provision. As such, managers are challenged to make the hospitality business more attractive to employees by tapping into their different psychological needs as a means of reducing turnover to meet the demand of the boom in the tourism industry in a country. In addition to this trend, psychological needs may vary among individuals with regards to age, level of education, and citizenship status United Arab Emirates in our case. In stating that 'I will never look for a routine environment, you know, so if it is challenging, that is the drive that keeps me interested, keeps you on high alert', a participant emphasises that the need to work does not inhibit or replace the need to have a family.
Similarly another says:. A participant also expressed the need to grow in his career but also to have the opportunity to live out his family role. He states that he needs 'to develop and grow [in his career] and you know for me to be able to do what I need to do for them [his family] as well'. In this regard a participant referred to work-life balance as achieving personal growth: 'I would say I view it as, you know, it contributes towards your personal growth. You grow as a person, so it is more of personal growth. In conclusion, our understanding of work-life balance therefore confirms that work and family roles as well as the role of self and other potential life roles are not mutually exclusive and clearly separable.
Rather these roles are intertwined and as a result a person will experience work-life balance as a holistic valuation of the quality outcomes of multiple role interaction. Theme 5: A continuous life process: Kalliath and Brough suggest that levels of work-life balance in a person's life change over time due to the differentiation of role needs and expectations linked to developmental tasks over one's life span.
Such a life stage perspective is also evident in the following response:.
system-amz-es-supprt-csmail.dns04.com/14043-american-lincoln-6150.php Kalliath and Brough agree that role salience not only varies across life and work roles, but also changes over time within those roles; and that continuous adjustment to multiple demands across at least the period of employment is a more realistic view of work-life balance.
Kofidimos in Poelmans et al. Finally Koekemoer and Mostert's conclusion that individuals may alternate their emphases on work and family activities in the short run to achieve balance in the long run is emphasised in the words of a participant: 'Don't try and get balance every day Theme 6: A managing competence: Contemporary definitions of management emphasise planning including prioritisation and scheduling.
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The organising of resources and control are core competencies in effective management. Various participant responses indicated that management of multiple role dynamics is essential in working towards work-life balance. Specifically role prioritisation, time management and establishing support structures organising resources were referred to as key activities in attempts to achieve work-life balance. Results indicate that participants who were able to prioritise and schedule time efficiently experienced greater balance.