The Bureau's failures were due not only to southern opposition and "national neglect," but also to mismanagement and courts that were biased "in favor of black litigants.
Since the end of Reconstruction in , Du Bois claims that the most significant event in African American history has been the rise of the educator, Booker T. Washington, to the role of spokesman for the race. Du Bois argues that Washington's approach to race relations is counterproductive to the long-term progress of the race.
Washington's acceptance of segregation and his emphasis on material progress represent an "old attitude of adjustment and submission. Du Bois insists that "the right to vote," "civic equality," and "the education of youth according to ability" are essential for African American progress.
W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk
Du Bois relates his experiences as a schoolteacher in rural Tennessee, and then he turns his attention to a critique of American materialism in the rising city of Atlanta where the single-minded attention to gaining wealth threatens to replace all other considerations. In terms of education, African Americans should not be taught merely to earn money. Rather, Du Bois argues there should be a balance between the "standards of lower training" and the "standards of human culture and lofty ideals of life.
Du Bois returns to an examination of rural African American life with a presentation of Dougherty County, Georgia as representative of life in the southern Black Belt. He presents the history and current conditions of the county. Cotton is still the life-blood of the Black Belt economy, and few African Americans are enjoying any economic success.
Du Bois describes the legal system and tenant farming system as only slightly removed from slavery.
The Existence of the Veil
McDermotttt , John J. Chicago , U. James , William , Varieties of Religious Expereince ; rept. New York: Macmillan, , p. James, Principles of Psychology , p. Relatively to that, the rest of her mind is in a state of systematized anaesthesia. That department, split off and disconnected from the sleeping part, can none the less wake the latter up in case of need…As glands cease to secrete and muscles to contract, so the brain should sometimes cease to carry currents, and with this minimum of its activity might well coexist a minimum of consciousness.
Myers, William James , p. James , William , The Will to Believe ; rept. New York: Dover, , pp. James , , Human Immortality ; rept. Also see Myers, William James , pp. James acknowledged that religion is not the only way to establish that unity. James recognized mind cure as an instance of this sort of religion p. Of course it is possible that James changed his mind after influencing DuBois or that DuBois may have accepted the idea over James's skepticism, or perhaps that DuBois found the notion useful or attractive as a trope that stimulated him to formulate his own nonbiological, racial idea.
Each of these possibilities, however, requires assumption warranted only by acceptance of the proposition that is to be demonstrated. Laslett , Peter , Runciman , W. Adolph L. Reed, Jr. This essay has been reprinted—along with others by Skinner, several criticisms, and his reply—in Tully , James , ed. Skinner's argument concerning imputations of influence has not provoked the sort of critical debate or dissent among historians of ideas as have other of his methodological views.
In a critique of Raymond Williams's Keywords , which provided some of the inspiration behind Rodgers's exemplary study, Skinner stresses the distinction between different forms of politically significant contestation over proper use of terms over whether agreed-upon meanings are being applied to the proper practices, whether the normative appraisal of an agreed-upon meaning should change, etc.
Unfortunately, Skinner overstates the need for and usefulness of speech-act theory as a technique for making such interpretive distinctions. Among others, Ian Shapiro has criticized effectively the intellectual inadequacies and conservative i. Higham , John and Conkin , Paul K.
Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press , p. In this case as well, Emerson's and James's references have more in common with each other than either does with DuBois's. For Emerson and James the veil surrounds transcendental inner experience; for DuBois it is the wall of racial exclusion. DuBois , , The Autobiography of W. New York: Penguin, ], p.
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Knopf , ; Lears , T. Lears, No Place of Grace , p. Cited in Hill , Mary A. This memoir was published when Luhan was in her fifty-eighth year. New York, , p. James, Varieties , pp. Meyer, Positive Thinkers , pp. Jessie Taft in fact argued directly that the experience of alienation among women was structurally and institutionally based; see The Woman Movement from the Point of View of Social Consciousness Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , pp.
Hansen , Olaf New York : Urizen , , pp. Her usage here illustrates the appropriation of Emerson and James by popular psychology and mysticism. She succeeded, this passage shows, in eliminating the tension between phenomenon and concept but exactly opposite from the way she thought she had.
Web Du Bois and Double Consciousness - Words | Cram
Rather than transcending intellection, she so completely objectified her surroundings that they existed only as a set of banal abstractions. They also commonly believed that prolonged expo-sure to tropical climates produced moral degeneracy. Even open-minded racial liberals like Josiah Royce, who was skeptical of racial essentialism, accepted that premise matter-of-factly.
Freeport, N. James, Varieties , p. James, Will to Believe , p. Also see James, Varieties , p. Crunden , Robert M.
Wilson , Douglas L. Cambridge : Harvard University Press , , esp. Rosenberg, Beyond Separate Spheres , p. Stanley , Adolescence [ New York : D. Appleton , ], vol.
Strivings of the Negro People
I recognize that, as Cott , Nancy F. I use the term here not to refer to support for or opposition to concrete movements, but more generically as a shorthand reference to stances reinforcing or opposing women's subordinate status in society. Kraditor , Aileen S. Johnson , Emily Cooper , ed. See Newman , Louise Michele , ed.
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Fernow, and Frances Gordon Smith. Also see Sewall , May Wright , ed. One might argue that those who adopted that stance did so tactically, which is no doubt to a greater or lesser extent true for given individuals.