Robert and Rohrbaugh, The organizational effectiveness is also defined as the degree the organization achieves the objectives. The subject of organizational effectiveness emphasizes on system control, management of information and goal setting, Quinn.
Essay on Organisational Culture by Sander Kaus | Organizational Culture | Leadership
Measuring of organizational effectiveness is a very critical step in the organizational development. Honda and Adas, , Lee and Tseng, In order to have an effective organization, business leaders should work on engaging their employees in executing the company strategy.
Many studies have shown that organizational culture has a direct effect on employees' satisfaction, efficiency, commitment and cooperation, decision-making etc. From the various perspectives about organizations' nature, their characteristics and dimensions, and their key effectiveness measures, multiple models of organizational effectiveness have been created. The relationship between CVF and the models of Organizational Effectiveness is developed with the following efficiency models illustrated below:. The validity of these four dimensions was also experienced by Quinn and Spreitzer.
Quinn and Spetizer, The study of these four models proposes that the competing values framework CVF is the most feasible model for measuring organizational effectiveness.
Essay Corporate Culture
Steers, and Zammuto, , found that the most important subject in the organizational culture theory is the measurement of effectiveness. For linking organizational culture, Ouchi, , studied and identified the characteristics to determine the organizational effectiveness. Quinn and Rohrbaugh , studied that relationship between organizational culture and effectiveness by developing the competing value framework. Kotter and Heskett, , studied the link between strength of culture and its impact on organizational effectiveness.
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And it was found by Ostroff and Schmitt , that the organizational effectiveness is directly impacted by the organizational culture. Juechter, Fisher and Alford , completed the study and found that the organizational culture deeply controls the organizational effectiveness. Thibodeaux and Favela , examined various methods to determine if a relationship exists between strategic management process and organization effectiveness such as, planning, objectives, flexibility, information management, communication, willingness, and found significant relationships. Rohrbaugh , Quinn and Rohbaugh , and Quinn , found that organizations are experiencing conflicts among organizational effectiveness aspects continuum, for instance, all organizations have a need for stability as well as a flexibility; a need for control as well as a need of freedom, a need for rational formal structures and non-rational informal relations.
In explaining the theory that illustrates the relationship between culture and performance, four main cultural behaviors are studied, involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission.
Dension and Mishra has laid the foundation of such theory by examining those four traits and linking them to organizational effectiveness as follows:. A sense of belonging to the organization is usually developed, feeling that employees are a part of the organization. Top management, managers, and employees in different levels feel they are part of the decision making process and that they can influence their work.
Their work are directly related to the organizational goals Katzenberg, ; Spreitzer, Culture is well coordinated and integrated. Behavior is derived from the core values and principles of the organization Davenport, ; Saffold, Mutual agreement can always be attained between leaders and followers even in the presence of conflicting views Block, Such consistency is the main source of stability and internal integration Senge, They create value and experience when creating change Nadler, ; Senge, Systems are continuously changes to improve organizations capabilities.
However, well integrated are the most difficult to change and this trait is the most challenging to attain. Organization shall have a clear and defined purpose and direction. Underlying changes in mission shall instantly change aspects of the organizational culture. However, and despite the attention that is given in the academic and business studies to organizational culture over the past decades, this area continues to be an area that requires further researches in order to be comprehended and further utilized.
Values Values are defined and known as long-term goals and objectives guiding ethics and principles in people's lives Rokeah, , Schwartz, Values are assumed either as explicit or implicit prescription of the 'wishes that effect persons' means Kluckhohn, Schwartz , assumed that values are certain settings that people gained, and they are also the prevailing solid scene, and can be the ruling standard in a series of behavioral patterns Ma, X.
Individuals with diverse values tend to emphasize different results and are driven to achieve different objectives Berson and Dyir, The impact of values prevalent in that they affect the most fundamental ways in which people perceive their environments Meglino and Ravlin, Leaders have also a vital role in determining and directing organizational culture Schein, While founders have the original role in establishing an organization's culture, succeeding top management and executives influence the future culture change Davis, S. Leadership is one of the major driving forces for improving firm performance.
Leaders and other executives, determine the development, and utilization of the organization resources, the transformation of these resources into valuable products and services. It supports organizations in achieving their objectives efficiently by linking job performance with a clear rewarding system and by ensuring the availability of the necessary resources needed by employees to do their job properly and efficiently.
Mainly transformational leaders build a strategic vision and communicate that vision by walking the talk and acting steadily, and build obligation towards the organization's vision Avolio, B. Different researches and studies have reported affirmative relationships between transformational leadership and results at the individual and firm levels consequently, the behavior and attitude of the leader affects and has a strong influence on shaping the organizational values Zhu, W.
Haakonsan investigated and analyzed how misalignments between the leadership style and organizational environment affect the organization performance, According to the results he found that any misalignment may result in negative performance consequences. Peterson, studied and analyzed how the CEO's behavior affects top management team dynamics, such as rigidity, leader control, power centralization, legalism, cohesiveness, and the performance efficiency related to 'income growth.
Personality measures appeared to have a clearer and direct impact on decision promptness. The effect of self-evaluation on innovative direction is stronger in dynamic environments because uncertainty biases top executives to rely more severely upon their own frame of reference, which gives them greater choice in shaping strategic directions. Evidence indicates that individuals with a greater self-evaluation tend to follow objectives that are internally matching with their personal interests, values, and aspirations Judge and Bono, Because top management with higher core self-evaluation are more confident that they can master their environment and surroundings and that the implementation of their knowledge and their capabilities will result in positive results, they should be more oriented to notice the positive possibility of entrepreneurial opportunities Chatterjee and Hambrick, Research also found that CEOs with lower core self-evaluation are more seemly to have less confidence in their ability to influence and control the environment when confronted with ambiguous challenges and have a greater propensity to avoid risk Hiller and Hambrick, , Uimuek, Heavay and Veiga, Related to previous studies about the consistent approach the values that can shape the leadership as the power, inspiration and self 'direction can have a major effect on organizational efficiency and strong direct effect on culture- efficiency relationship.
In any dynamic environment there is always rapid change and discontinuity in competition, demand, technology, or regulation and due to these changes the gathered information is often either inaccurate or outdated Eisenhardt and Bourgeous, In this framework, because cause-effect relationships are generally unknown, the result is uncertainty in decision making and gives founders and CEOs greater choice and freedom of action Uimuek, Heavay and Veiga, Once the culture is shaped, founders and top management, and key leaders are responsible for managing the development of the organization's basic rules and for adjusting and modifying the culture in order to keep up with the rapid change in the environmental demands Schein, , Agle, , Wally and Boam, Given the general propensity of individuals to insert their vision and interpretations and personalities into their judgments and decisions when challenged with unclear situations Mischel, it would be expected that this tendency to be mostly strong among higher core self-evaluation top management working in dynamic environments.
On the other hand and when the environment is constant and stable, the influence of top management core self-evaluation on individuals entrepreneurial direction is less noticeable Uimuek, Heavay and Veiga, It has been found that the more the organizational environment is stable and steady the more the leadership characteristics occurs such as managerial, transformational, political and ethical leadership Urluogro, Therefore, stability or inconsistency of organizational environment can enhance the rise of strategic and operational changes.
Organizational culture contains the values, beliefs, behaviors and norms that link the members of an organization. Similar to all other cultures organizational culture matures over a long period of time with the contribution of the members. Through studying and analyzing the culture of an organization, we are able to come up with various conclusions.
These include conclusions about the culture resistance, and communication and leadership styles. These conclusions can be helpful for top management and executives to encourage better organizational cultures which consequently improve the organization effectiveness and performance. An organization's performance can be understood from the organization's culture.
The organizational culture exposes the leadership styles of those leading and managing the organization. It has been observed in this research that the self-direction feature of founders , CEO and top Managers in the organization is related to inspiration and power. The managers with the higher self-direction personality could be referred to as being more dominant in this sense. The individuals with higher self-direction and enthusiasm pay relatively a less importance to the quality in the organizational efficiency criteria. Both clan culture and the adhocracy culture have been found as negatively related to the organizational environment factor which highlights and emphasizes organizational structure, work in organization, and external competition.
In Market culture it has been found that consistency is considered with high importance for the employees working in such culture. This implements significance to the organizational policies and procedures as well as human resources practices, which guarantee employees to be market oriented and to identify themselves with the organization for this. It has been pointed out that it is necessary to give relatively less importance to the stability control in order to get better productivity. The strategies and policies have been preferred to grow the organization rather than working on activities towards attain employee's loyalty.
It has been noticed that market cultures to have an impact on planning-goal setting and human resources development indicators; and the adhocracy cultures to have an impact on information management and communication are among the expected outcomes. Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [ 18 ]. The definition of organizational culture is of the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work [ 19 ].
Organizational Culture Essay
The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture. This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [ 20 ].
Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior. Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring.
A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [ 21 ], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system.
Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [ 22 ]. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [ 23 ].
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Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction. Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ]. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [ 25 ]. An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals.
Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization. Hypothesis 3 -. Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.
gatsbycapital.co.uk/fatherless-bobs-story-a-tough-beginning.php A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [ 26 , 27 ]. Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al. Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al.
The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire. Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section. However, the proposed test was not empirically studied.
Why Workplace Culture is Important
Nurses from hospital A were used as a pilot study sample. Vroom [ 28 ] classified job satisfaction into 7 dimensions: organizational, promotion, job content, superior, reward, working environment and working partners. We took into consideration that nurses' salary increases are based on promotion. Furthermore, a large number of variables in organization culture and leadership behavior were covered by this research.
To prevent too few number nurses from responding to the questionnaires, we asked only 4 job satisfaction dimensions out of a total of 12 items: job recognition, reward and welfare, superior and working partners. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Central Taiwan. We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Data was collected between October 1 and November 30, We selected 2 hospitals as our sample target and appointed a designated person at each to issue questionnaires to employees.
The number of questionnaires issued depended on the designated person. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily by all respondents. During the research period, there were nurses in hospital A; questionnaires were distributed, and 57 valid questionnaires were returned. In hospital B there were a total of nurses; questionnaires were distributed, and valid questionnaires were returned total return rate Of the subjects, The majority of employees at the hospitals were general nurses Within the research sample there is only 1 male nurse.